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jenis sel

Jenis sel adalah perbedaan bentuk morfologi atau fungsional dari sel. Ketika sel berubah dari jenis satu ke yang jenis lain, maka berlangsung diferensiasi sel.

Manusia

jenis sel yang berbeda memiliki reaksi yang berbeda pula terhadap stimulus.

Ada 210 macam jenis sel pada manusia.

Keratinizing epithelial cells

  • Epidermal keratinocyte (differentiating epidermal cell)
  • Epidermal basal cell (stem cell)
  • Keratinocyte of fingernails and toenails
  • Nail bed basal cell (stem cell)
  • Medullary hair shaft cell
  • Cortical hair shaft cell
  • Cuticular hair shaft cell
  • Cuticular hair root sheath cell
  • Hair root sheath cell of Huxley's layer
  • Hair root sheath cell of Henle's layer
  • External hair root sheath cell
  • Hair matrix cell (stem cell)

Wet stratified barrier epithelial cells

  • Surface epithelial cell of stratified squamous epithelium of cornea, tongue, oral cavity, esophagus, anal canal, distal urethra and vagina
  • basal cell (stem cell) of epithelia of cornea, tongue, oral cavity, esophagus, anal canal, distal urethra and vagina
  • Urinary epithelium cell (lining urinary bladder and urinary ducts)

Exocrine secretory epithelial cells

  • Salivary gland mucous cell (polysaccharide-rich secretion)
  • Salivary gland serous cell (glycoprotein enzyme-rich secretion)
  • Von Ebner's gland cell in tongue (washes taste buds)
  • Mammary gland cell (milk secretion)
  • Lacrimal gland cell (tear secretion)
  • Ceruminous gland cell in ear (wax secretion)
  • Eccrine sweat gland dark cell (glycoprotein secretion)
  • Eccrine sweat gland clear cell (small molecule secretion)
  • Apocrine sweat gland cell (odoriferous secretion, sex-hormone sensitive)
  • Gland of Moll cell in eyelid (specialized sweat gland)
  • Sebaceous gland cell (lipid-rich sebum secretion)
  • Bowman's gland cell in nose (washes olfactory epithelium)
  • Brunner's gland cell in duodenum (enzymes and alkaline mucus)
  • Seminal vesicle cell (secretes seminal fluid components, including fructose for swimming sperm)
  • Prostate gland cell (secretes seminal fluid components)
  • Bulbourethral gland cell (mucus secretion)
  • Bartholin's gland cell (vaginal lubricant secretion)
  • Gland of Littre cell (mucus secretion)
  • Uterus endometrium cell (carbohydrate secretion)
  • Isolated goblet cell of respiratory and digestive tracts (mucus secretion)
  • Stomach lining mucous cell (mucus secretion)
  • Gastric gland zymogenic cell (pepsinogen secretion)
  • Gastric gland oxyntic cell (hydrochloric acid secretion)
  • Pancreatic acinar cell (bicarbonate and digestive enzyme secretion)
  • Paneth cell of small intestine (lysozyme secretion)
  • Type II pneumocyte of lung (surfactant secretion)
  • Clara cell of lung

Hormone secreting cells

Metabolism and storage cells

  • Hepatocyte (liver cell)
  • White fat cell
  • Brown fat cell
  • Liver lipocyte

Barrier function cells (Lung, Gut, Exocrine Glands and Urogenital Tract)

Kidney

  • Kidney glomerulus parietal cell
  • Kidney glomerulus podocyte
  • Kidney proximal tubule brush border cell
  • Loop of Henle thin segment cell
  • Kidney distal tubule cell
  • Kidney collecting duct cell

Other

  • Type I pneumocyte (lining air space of lung)
  • Pancreatic duct cell (centroacinar cell)
  • Nonstriated duct cell (of sweat gland, salivary gland, mammary gland, etc.)
    • principal cell
    • Intercalated cell
  • Duct cell (of seminal vesicle, prostate gland, etc.)
  • Intestinal brush border cell (with microvilli)
  • Exocrine gland striated duct cell
  • Gall bladder epithelial cell
  • Ductulus efferens nonciliated cell
  • Epididymal principal cell
  • Epididymal basal cell

Epithelial cells lining closed internal body cavities

  • Blood vessel and lymphatic vascular endothelial fenestrated cell
  • Blood vessel and lymphatic vascular endothelial continuous cell
  • Blood vessel and lymphatic vascular endothelial splenic cell
  • Synovial cell (lining joint cavities, hyaluronic acid secretion)
  • Serosal cell (lining peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial cavities)
  • Squamous cell (lining perilymphatic space of ear)
  • Squamous cell (lining endolymphatic space of ear)
  • Columnar cell of endolymphatic sac with microvilli (lining endolymphatic space of ear)
  • Columnar cell of endolymphatic sac without microvilli (lining endolymphatic space of ear)
  • Dark cell (lining endolymphatic space of ear)
  • Vestibular membrane cell (lining endolymphatic space of ear)
  • Stria vascularis basal cell (lining endolymphatic space of ear)
  • Stria vascularis marginal cell (lining endolymphatic space of ear)
  • Cell of Claudius (lining endolymphatic space of ear)
  • Cell of Boettcher (lining endolymphatic space of ear)
  • Choroid plexus cell (cerebrospinal fluid secretion)
  • Pia-arachnoid squamous cell
  • Pigmented ciliary epithelium cell of eye
  • Nonpigmented ciliary epithelium cell of eye
  • Corneal endothelial cell

Ciliated cells with propulsive function

  • Respiratory tract ciliated cell
  • Oviduct ciliated cell (in female)
  • Uterine endometrial ciliated cell (in female)
  • Rete testis cilated cell (in male)
  • Ductulus efferens ciliated cell (in male)
  • Ciliated ependymal cell of central nervous system (lining brain cavities)

Extracellular matrix secretion cells

  • Ameloblast epithelial cell (tooth enamel secretion)
  • Planum semilunatum epithelial cell of vestibular apparatus of ear (proteoglycan secretion)
  • Organ of Corti interdental epithelial cell (secreting tectorial membrane covering hair cells)
  • Loose connective tissue fibroblasts
  • Corneal fibroblasts
  • Tendon fibroblasts
  • Bone marrow reticular tissue fibroblasts
  • Other nonepithelial fibroblasts
  • Pericyte
  • Nucleus pulposus cell of intervertebral disc
  • Cementoblast/cementocyte (tooth root bonelike cementum secretion)
  • Odontoblast/odontocyte (tooth dentin secretion)
  • Hyaline cartilage chondrocyte
  • Fibrocartilage chondrocyte
  • Elastic cartilage chondrocyte
  • Osteoblast/osteocyte
  • Osteoprogenitor cell (stem cell of osteoblasts)
  • Hyalocyte of vitreous body of eye
  • Stellate cell of perilymphatic space of ear

Contractile cells

  • Skeletal muscle cells
    • Red skeletal muscle cell (slow)
    • White skeletal muscle cell (fast)
    • Intermediate skeletal muscle cell
    • nuclear bag cell of Muscle spindle
    • nuclear chain cell of Muscle spindle
  • Satellite cell (stem cell)
  • heart muscle cells
    • Ordinary heart muscle cell
    • Nodal heart muscle cell
    • Purkinje fiber cell
  • Smooth muscle cell (various types)
  • Myoepithelial cell of iris
  • Myoepithelial cell of exocrine glands
  • Red Blood Cell

Blood and immune system cells

  • Erythrocyte (red blood cell)
  • Megakaryocyte (platelet precursor)
  • Monocyte
  • Connective tissue macrophage (various types)
  • Epidermal Langerhans cell
  • Osteoclast (in bone)
  • Dendritic cell (in lymphoid tissues)
  • Microglial cell (in central nervous system)
  • Neutrophil granulocyte
  • Eosinophil granulocyte
  • Basophil granulocyte
  • Mast cell
  • Helper T cell
  • Suppressor T cell
  • Cytotoxic T cell
  • NKT Cell
  • B cells
  • Natural killer cell
  • Reticulocyte
  • Stem cells and committed progenitors for the blood and immune system (various types)

Sensory transducer cells

  • Auditory inner hair cell of organ of Corti
  • Auditory outer hair cell of organ of Corti
  • Basal cell of olfactory epithelium (stem cell for olfactory neurons)
  • Cold-sensitive primary sensory neurons
  • Heat-sensitive primary sensory neurons
  • Merkel cell of epidermis (touch sensor)
  • Olfactory receptor neuron
  • Pain-sensitive primary sensory neurons (various types)
  • Photoreceptor cells of retina in eye:
    • Photoreceptor rod cells
    • Photoreceptor blue-sensitive cone cell of eye
    • Photoreceptor green-sensitive cone cell of eye
    • [Photoreceptor red-sensitive cone cell of eye
  • Proprioceptive primary sensory neurons (various types)
  • Touch-sensitive primary sensory neurons (various types)
  • Type I carotid body cell (blood pH sensor)
  • Type II carotid body cell (blood pH sensor)
  • Type I hair cell of vestibular apparatus of ear (acceleration and gravity)
  • Type II hair cell of vestibular apparatus of ear (acceleration and gravity)
  • Type I taste bud cell

Autonomic neuron cells

  • Cholinergic neural cell (various types)
  • Adrenergic neural cell (various types)
  • Peptidergic neural cell (various types)

Sense organ and peripheral neuron supporting cells

  • Inner pillar cell of organ of Corti
  • Outer pillar cell of organ of Corti
  • Inner phalangeal cell of organ of Corti
  • Outer phalangeal cell of organ of Corti
  • Border cell of organ of Corti
  • Hensen cell of organ of Corti
  • Vestibular apparatus supporting cell
  • Type I taste bud supporting cell
  • Olfactory epithelium supporting cell
  • Schwann cell
  • Satellite cell (encapsulating peripheral nerve cell bodies)
  • Enteric glial cell

Central nervous system neurons and glial cells

  • Astrocyte (various types)
  • Neuron cells (large variety of types, still poorly classified)
  • Oligodendrocyte
  • Spindle neuron

Lens cells

  • Anterior lens epithelial cell
  • Crystallin-containing lens fiber cell
  • karan cells

Pigment cells

  • Melanocyte
  • Retinal pigmented epithelial cell

Germ cells

  • Oogonium/Oocyte
  • Spermatid
  • Spermatocyte
  • Spermatogonium cell (stem cell for spermatocyte)
  • Spermatozoon

Nurse cells

  • Ovarian follicle cell
  • Sertoli cell (in testis)
  • Thymus epithelial cell

Interstitial cells

  • Interstitial kidney cells

 

Tumbuhan

Jenis sel pada tumbuhan meliputi:

  • Aleurone
  • Collenchyma
  • Endodermis
  • Endosperm
  • Epidermis
  • Mesophyll
  • Meristematic cells
  • Palisade
  • Parenchyma
  • Phloem sieve tube
  • Pollen generative
  • Pollen vegetative
  • Sclerenchyma
  • Tracheids
  • Xylem vessel
  • Zygote

 

 

 

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